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martes , diciembre 18 2018
Home / Curiosidades / Claveles en Maceta: Siembra, Reproducción, Cuidados y Variedades!

Claveles en Maceta: Siembra, Reproducción, Cuidados y Variedades!

Junto con las rosas, los claveles están entre las flores más comercializadas en todo el mundo. Su variedad de colores y penetrante aroma los convirtieron en un favorito. Aunque originarios de la cuenca mediterránea, hoy se cultivan en cualquier parte del mundo, pero cultivarlos fuera de invernadero sólo es posible en las zonas más templadas.

Como requieren de mucha luz, son ideales para el jardín y, con los cuidados adecuados, lo llenarán de flores durante casi todo el año. Acá te contamos un poco más sobre los claveles y cómo mantener a tu planta de clavel linda y fuerte.

Cultivo De Claveles: Reproducción, Siembra, Cuidados Y Variedades

El clavel pertenece a la familia de las Carifiláceas y al género Dianthus, que comprende cerca de 250 especies diferentes. Las más populares son el Dianthus barbatus(clavelina), el caryophyllus (el clavel “común”), y el chinensis (clavel chino). Podemos encontrarlas en variedades ‘standard’ o ‘uniflora’, grandes, o ‘mini’.

Es una planta perenne de base leñosa con tallos de hasta 80 cm de altura, sus hojas son lineares. Las flores se dan en grupos de 1-5, muy olorosas. Pétalos dentados de forma irregular, no barbados, de 1-1.5 cm de longitud. Actualmente se cultivan claveles de tipo uniflora, multiflora o de ramillete e italiano o mediterráneo. Los colores más comunes son el rojo, rosado, blanco, salmón, amarillo y bicolores.

Aunque soporta hasta los -3/-4ºC sin helarse, la formación de yemas florales se para por debajo de 8ºC  y por encima de 25ºC.  Los 0ºC son fatales para el clavel pues se pueden formar lunares y deformaciones en los pétalos. La temperatura óptima en invierno es entre 15° y 18° durante el día y entre 10 y 12° durante la noche. En verano, la temperatura ideal es de 21° durante el día 12° a la noche.

La luz es un factor determinante tanto para el crecimiento como para la floración, por ello es ideal plantar en el jardín donde reciba buena cantidad de luz. La exposición directa al sol no daña al clavel, sino lo contrario.

El suelo tiene que ser poroso y tener una elevada capacidad de drenaje para evitar encharcamientos y asfixias. Al ser una planta rústica, puede soportar altas salinidades tanto del suelo como del agua.

Esta planta  tiene altas necesidades nutritivas. Abonar una vez por semana en primavera y verano. El resto del año, basta con abonarlo una vez al mes. Se puede agregar abono líquido al agua de riego.  El clavel necesita de un riego diario en la época de primavera y verano, evitando el exceso de agua y encharcamientos.

La multiplicación se realiza mediante esquejes en época de primavera. De un “clavel madre” cortamos tallos que tengan nudos, brotes de flor y hojas y los plantamos en una maceta. La pondremos donde le dé bien la luz y la regaremos diariamente para que el sustrato esté siempre húmedo. En unas 3 semanas ya tendremos enraizadas nuestras pequeñas plantas, listas para trasplantar a su ubicación final. También puede hacerse mediante semillas en primavera, que tardarán en germinar de 2 a 3 semanas en ambiente cálido.

Fuente: flordeplanta.com.ar

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